This paper ‘scores’ or grades placentas as to how many/much lesions associated with CHI and finds that a higher score (more lesions) is associated with worse outcomes and is considered to be more severe CHI. They specifically found that anti-CD68 antibodies were associated with CHI suggesting that there is an immunological association as CD68 is found on macrophages – one of the immune response cells. They make the link with the woman mounting an immune response to the paternal cells. Unfortunately, of the 30 pregnancies that were involved in the study, only 10 of them resulted in a healthy baby. This study links to others suggesting that there is mixed evidence as to the efficacy of using prednisolone and aspirin in pregnancy to improve outcomes.