Medical Research

One-Sided Chronic Intervillositis of Unknown Etiology in Dizygotic Twins: A Description of 3 Cases (van der Meeren et al 2021)

Chronic intervillositis of unknown etiology (CIUE) is a rare, poorly understood, histopathological diagnosis of the placenta that is frequently accompanied by adverse pregnancy outcomes including miscarriage, fetal growth restriction, and intrauterine fetal death. CIUE is thought to
have an immunologically driven pathophysiology and may be related to human leukocyte antigen mismatches between the mother and the fetus. Dizygotic twins with one-sided CIUE provide an interesting context to study the influence of immunogenetic differences in such cases. The main
immune-cell subsets were investigated using immunohistochemistry. We identified three dizygotic twin pregnancies in which CIUE was present in only one of the two placentas. Two of the pregnancies ended in term delivery and one ended in preterm delivery. Presence of CIUE was correlated with lower placental weight and lower birthweight. Relative number of CD68, CD56, CD20, and CD3 positive cells were comparable between co-twins. The presence of one-sided CIUE in dizygotic twin
pregnancy was associated with selective growth restriction in the affected twin. This suggests a unique fetal immunogenetic contribution to the pathogenesis of CIUE. Further study of dizygotic and monozygotic placentas affected by CIUE could identify new insights into its pathophysiology and into the field of reproductive immunology.